Fatty acyl-coenzyme A:estradiol acyltransferase in liver microsomes catalyzes the formation of estradiol fatty acid esters. These estrogen esters are extremely lipophilic and have prolonged hormonal activity because they are slowly metabolized and slowly release estradiol. Our previous studies showed that treatment of female rats with clofibrate or gemfibrozil (peroxisome proliferators commonly used as hypolipidemic drugs) markedly stimulated the liver microsomal esterification of estradiol. Although clofibrate administration is a potent inducer of liver microsomal fatty acyl-coenzyme A:estradiol acyltransferase in rats, it is a poor inducer in mice. In contrast to these observations, Wy-14,643 (an exceptionally potent prototypical peroxisome proliferator) is a strong inducer of fatty acyl-coenzyme A:estradiol acyltransferase in mice. To explore the role of PPARα in the induction of fatty acyl-coenzyme A:estradiol acyltransferase and fatty acylcoenzyme A:testosterone acyltransferase activities by peroxisome proliferators, we fed 0.1% Wy-14,643 to female wild-type and PPARα null mice for 11 d. The liver microsomal acyl-coenzyme A:estradiol acyltransferase and acyl-coenzyme A:testosterone acyltransferase activities were increased 4- to 5-fold in wild-type mice fed Wy-14,643, but no increase was observed in null mice. These results demonstrate that induction of acyl-coenzyme A:estradiol acyltransferase and acyl-coenzyme A:testosterone acyltransferase activities by a prototypical peroxisome proliferator is dependent on PPARα.
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