Background: Recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis (RCDC) is common, but data regarding recurrence rates and predisposing factors are sparse. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed, identifying all inpatients and outpatients ≥18 years of age with C. difficile colitis (CDC) confirmed by a positive stool sample collected at our institution from January 2008 to August 2011. Factors associated with RCDC, the number of RCDC episodes, and the need for admission for RCDC were sought. Results: A total of 739 patients (male, 47 %) were studied, of whom 527 (71 %) received inpatient treatment for their index episode of CDC. There was no difference (p = 0.53) between RCDC rates for inpatients (17.6 %) and outpatients (19.8 %). While severity score and albumin were associated with RCDC in our population, use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) correlated with decreased RCDC (p = 0.006) and decreased need for admission (p = 0.005). The addition of vancomycin to metronidazole therapy did not lower RCDC rates (p = 0.52) or decrease the need for admission (p = 0.78). Conclusions: Hypoalbuminemia strongly correlated with higher recurrence rates, while PPI therapy actually reduced RCDC, representing previously underappreciated potential therapeutic targets for lowering CDC recurrence. The addition of vancomycin to metronidazole did not improve RCDC rates.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes