Generation of pulsatile flow depends on an energy gradient. Surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) is the extra hemodynamic energy generated by a pulsatile device when the adequate pulsatility is achieved. The objective of this study was to precisely quantify and compare pressure-flow waveforms in terms of surplus hemodynamic energy levels of six different pediatric heart-lung machines in a neonatal piglet model during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Thirty-nine piglets (average weight, 3 kg) were subjected to CPB with a hydraulically driven physiologic pulsatile pump (PPP; n = 7), Jostra-HL 20 pulsatile roller pump (Jostra-PR; n = 6), Stockert SIII pulsatile roller pump (SIII-PR; n = 6), Stockert SIII mast-mounted pulsatile roller pump with a miniature roller head (Mast-PR; n = 7), Stockert SIII mast-mounted nonpulsatile roller pump (Mast-NP; n = 7), or Stockert CAPS nonpulsatile roller pump (CAPS-NP, n = 7), Once CPB was begun, each animal underwent 20 minutes of hypothermia, 60 minutes of DHCA, 10 minutes of cold reperfusion, and 40 minutes of rewarming. The pump flow rate was maintained at 150 ml-kg-1 ·min-1 and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 45 mm Hg. In the pulsatile experiments, the pump rate was kept at 150 bpm and the stroke volume at 1 ml/kg. The SHE (ergs/cm 3) = 1,332 ([(∫ fpdt) / (∫ fdt)] - MAP) was calculated at each experimental stage. During normothermic CPB (15 minutes on pump), the physiologic pulsatile pump generated the highest surplus hemodynamic energy (8,563 ± 1,918 ergs/cm3, p < 0.001) compared with all other pumps. The Jostra HL-20 and Stockert SIII pulsatile roller pumps also produced adequate surplus hemodynamic energy. Nonpulsatile roller pumps and the Stockert SIII mast-mounted pulsatile roller pump did not generate any extra hemodynamic energy. During hypothermic CPB and after DHCA and rewarming, the results were extremely similar to those seen during normothermic CPB. The surplus hemodynamic energy formula is a novel method to precisely quantify different levels of pulsatility and nonpulsatility for direct and meaningful comparisons. The PPP produced the greatest surplus hemodynamic energy. Most of the pediatric pulsatile pumps (except Mast-PR) generated significant surplus hemodynamic energy. None of the nonpulsatile roller pumps generated adequate surplus hemodynamic energy.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||4|
|State||Published - Sep 1 2005|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering