The first order approximation (FOA3) currently employed to estimate BC mass emissions underpredicts BC emissions due to inaccuracies in measuring low smoke numbers (SNs) produced by modern high bypass ratio engines. The recently developed Formation and Oxidation (FOX) method removes the need for and hence uncertainty associated with (SNs), instead relying upon engine conditions in order to predict BC mass. Using the true engine operating conditions from proprietary engine cycle data an improved FOX (ImFOX) predictive relation is developed. Still, the current methods are not optimized to estimate cruise emissions nor account for the use of alternative jet fuels with reduced aromatic content. Here improved correlations are developed to predict engine conditions and BC mass emissions at ground and cruise altitude. This new ImFOX is paired with a newly developed hydrogen relation to predict emissions from alternative fuels and fuel blends. The ImFOX is designed for rich-quench-lean style combustor technologies employed predominately in the current aviation fleet.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry