Preoperative Dependent Functional Status Is Associated With Poor Outcomes After Carotid Endarterectomy and Carotid Stenting in Both Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients

Ahsan Zil-E-Ali, Victoria Kusztos, Tanya R. Flohr, Faisal Aziz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Both Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) are the most common procedures to treat patients with symptomatic, and asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis. Poor preoperative functional status (FS) is increasingly being recognized as predictor for postoperative outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of preoperative functional status on the outcomes of patients who undergo CEA or CAS. Methods: Data was obtained from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database from the years 2011–2018. All patients in the database who underwent CEA or CAS during this time period were identified. Patients were then further divided into 2 subgroups: FS-Independent and FS-dependent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses was performed for pre, intra and post-operative variables with functional status. Outcomes for treatment of symptomatic carotid disease were compared to those with asymptomatic disease among the cohort of functionally dependent patients. Results: A total of 27,163 patients (61.2% Males, 38.8% Females) underwent CEA (n = 26,043) or CAS (n = 1,120) from 2011–2018. Overall, primary outcomes were as follows: mortality 0.77% (n = 210) and stroke 1.87% (n = 507).Risk adjusted multivariate analysis showed that FS-D patients undergoing CEA had higher mortality (AOR 3.06, CI 1.90–4.92, P < 0.001), longer operative times (AOR 1.36, CI 1.17–1.58, P< 0.001) higher incidence of unplanned reoperation (AOR 1.68, CI 1.19–2.37, P = 0.003), postoperative pneumonia (AOR 5.43, CI 1.62 – 18.11, P = 0.006) and ≥3 day LOS (AOR 3.05, CI 2.62–3.56, P < 0.001) as compared to FS-I patients. FS-D patients undergoing CAS had higher incidence of postoperative pneumonia (AOR 20.81, CI 1.66–261.54, P = 0.019) and higher incidence of LOS ≥3 days (AOR 2.18, CI 1.21–3.93, P < .01) as compared to FS-I patients. Survival analysis showed that the best 30-day survival was observed in FS-I patients undergoing CEA, followed by FS-I patients undergoing CAS, followed by FS-D patients undergoing CEA, followed by FS-D patients undergoing CAS. FS-D status increased mortality after CEA by 2.11%. When the outcomes of CAS and CEA were compared to each other for the cohort of FS-D patients, CAS was associated with higher incidence of stroke (AOR 3.46, CI 0.32–1.97, P= 0.046), shorter operative times (AOR 0.25, CI 0.12–0.52, P < 0.001) and higher incidence of pneumonia (AOR 11.29, CI 1.32–96.74, P = 0.027). Symptomatic patients undergoing CEA had higher LOS as compared to symptomatic patients undergoing CAS, and asymptomatic patients undergoing CEA or CAS. Conclusions: FS-D patients, undergoing CEA have higher mortality as compared to FS-I patients undergoing CAS. FS-D patients undergoing CAS have higher incidence of postoperative pneumonia and longer LOS as compared to FS-I patients. For the cohort of FS-D patients undergoing either CEA or CAS, CAS was associated with higher risk of stroke and reduced operative times. Risk benefit ratio for any carotid intervention should be carefully assessed before offering it to FS-D patients. Preoperative Dependent Functional Status Is Associated with Poor Outcomes After Carotid Endarterectomy and Carotid Stenting in Both Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-127
Number of pages14
JournalAnnals of Vascular Surgery
Volume76
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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