Objective: To explore the rate and factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a single tertiary medical centre in Central Pennsylvania. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all individuals ≤ 18 years of age who were diagnosed with T1D (N = 350) at the Penn State Hershey Pediatric Diabetes Clinic from January 2017 to December 2019. We report logistic regression models for DKA at diagnosis of T1D for age, gender, race/ethnicity, BMI percentile, health insurance, outcome of any healthcare encounter 30 days prior to T1D diagnosis, HbA1c level, altered mental status at diagnosis, and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and a multivariable logistic regression model including all aforementioned variables. Results: Of the 350 newly diagnosed children with T1D from 2017 to 2019, 161/350 (46%) presented in DKA. Among patients with DKA, there were 45 (28%) in mild DKA and 116 (72%) in moderate/severe DKA, which represents 13% and 33% of all patients diagnosed with T1D, respectively. Variables associated with increased risk of DKA at presentation of T1D included age (<3 or 9-13), BMI percentile (<3% or > 97%), no referral during preceding healthcare encounter, HbA1c level and altered mental status. In a multivariable model, age (<3 or 9-13), no referral during preceding healthcare encounter, HbA1c level and altered mental status were associated with DKA at presentation, whereas gender, race/ethnicity, BMI percentile, health insurance and autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were not. Discussion: Our study notes an overall higher rate of DKA at diagnosis (46%) compared to the SEARCH study (approximately 30%) but a lower rate compared to a recent study in Colorado children (58%).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism