Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between nummular (discoid) eczema (NE) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Objective: To examine trends, associations, and clinical relevance of ACD in patients with NE who were referred for patch testing. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 38 723 patients from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. Results: Overall, 748 patients (1.9%) were diagnosed with NE; 23.9% had a concomitant diagnosis of ACD. The prevalence of NE fluctuated over time between 2001 and 2016, with no overall change in prevalence in diagnosed NE. In multivariable logistic regression models, NE increased steadily with age and was associated with male sex and Asian and other race/ethnicity, and inversely associated with a history of atopic dermatitis (AD) and hay fever. Patients with NE had lower proportions of one or more positive allergic reactions and lower odds of a positive reaction in multiple individual allergens. The most commonly relevant allergens in patients with NE were formaldehyde 2.0% aq., methylisothiazolinone, quaternium 15, fragrance mix I, and propylene glycol. Conclusion: NE is a heterogeneous disorder with distinct subsets of lesional distributions and a profile of relevant allergens, especially formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers. Nearly one in four patients with NE had ACD, supporting the role of patch testing in patients with NE.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy