Prevalence, behavioral and socioeconomic factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus in Ghana: A population-based cross-sectional study

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Abstract

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a serious public health problem and cause of death in many parts of Africa, including Ghana. Ghana has one of the highest rates of HIV in West Africa, yet factors associated with the prevalence of HIV infection are not well characterized.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess HIV prevalence and associated knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral factors among men and women in Ghana.

Methods: This a population-based cross-sectional study of 4,687 women between the ages of 15-49 years and 4,161 men between the ages of 15-59 years who participated in the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys 2014 (GDHS-2014). The outcome variable was HIV status assessed through a blood test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify potential factors that were associated with HIV.

Results: The overall prevalence of HIV in this study was 2%. Among women, the prevalence was 2.5%, and among men the prevalence was 1.1%. Increasing age was positively associated with the likelihood of HIV infection. Women between the ages of 35-49 years (adjusted odds ratio, aOR=3.51, 95% confidence interval, CI=1.65-7.47) and men between the ages of 35-49 years (aOR=7.07, 95% CI=1.48-33.80) were at a higher odds for HIV compared with women and men between the ages 15-24 years. Widowed, divorced, or separated women and men were more likely to test positive for HIV infection (aOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.00-3.15) and (aOR=2.95, 95% CI=1.26-6.91) when compared with never married women and men, respectively.

Conclusions: In Ghana, the prevalence of HIV among women was approximately twice that of men. Factors such as increasing age, marital status, ever been tested for HIV, having one sex partner, and religion were significantly and independently associated with higher odds of HIV infection in Ghana.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Global Health Reports
Volume2019
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 24 2019

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