Prevalence, determinants, and clinical significance of masked hypertension in a population-based sample of African Americans: The Jackson heart study

Keith M. Diaz, Praveen Veerabhadrappa, Michael D. Brown, Matthew C. Whited, Patricia M. Dubbert, Demarc A. Hickson

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BACKGROUND The disproportionate rates of cardiovascular disease in African Americans may, in part, be due to suboptimal assessment of blood pressure (BP) with clinic BP measurements alone. To date, however, the prevalence of masked hypertension in African Americans has not been fully delineated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate masked hypertension prevalence in a large population-based sample of African Americans and examine its determinants and association with indices of target organ damage (TOD). METHODS Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring were conducted in 972 African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness, left ventricular mass index, and the urinary albumin:creatinine excretion ratio were evaluated as indices of TOD. RESULTS Masked hypertension prevalence was 25.9% in the overall sample and 34.4% in participants with normal clinic BP. All indices of TOD were significantly higher in masked hypertensives compared to sustained normotensives and were similar between masked hypertensives and sustained hypertensives. Male gender, smoking, diabetes, and antihypertensive medication use were independent determinants of masked hypertension in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS In this population-based cohort of African Americans, approximately one-third of participants with presumably normal clinic BP had masked hypertension when BP was assessed in their daily environment. Masked hypertension was accompanied by a greater degree of TOD in this cohort.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)900-908
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican journal of hypertension
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2015


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine

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