Prevalence of HIV in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and associated outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Paddy Ssentongo, Emily S Heilbrunn, Anna E Ssentongo, Shailesh Advani, Vernon M Chinchilli, Jonathan J Nunez, Ping Du

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of HIV in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and delineating clinical outcomes including mortality. Design/Methods MEDLINE, SCOPUS, OVID, and Cochrane Library databases and medrxiv.org were searched from January 1st, 2020, to June 15th, 2020. Data were extracted from studies reporting the prevalence of HIV among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and their clinical outcomes. Analyses were performed using random-effects models on log-transformed proportions and risk ratio estimates, and heterogeneity was quantified. Results A total of 144,795 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were identified from 14 studies in North America, Europe, and Asia. Median age was 55 years, and 66% were male. The pooled prevalence of HIV in COVID-19 patients was 1.22% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61%-2.43%)] translating to a 2-fold increase compared to the respective local-level pooled HIV prevalence in the general population of 0.65% (95% CI: 0.48%-0.89%). When stratified by country, the pooled HIV prevalence among COVID-19 patients in United States (1.43%, 95% CI: 0.98%-2.07%) was significantly higher compared to Spain (0.26%, 95% CI: 0.23%-0.29%) but was not different from China (0.99%, 95% CI: 0.25%-3.85%). The pooled mortality rate in HIV-positive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 14.1% (95% CI: 5.78%-30.50%) and was substantially higher in the United States compared to other countries.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementNoneAuthor DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:This is a meta-analysis and therefore it is IRB exempt.All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesAll data is found within the manuscript.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2020.07.03.20143628
JournalmedRxiv
DOIs
StatePublished - 2020

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