Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a global public health problem affecting all nations and races. Few studies on the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS) examined multi-ethnic adults in rural areas in Xinjiang, China. We thus investigated the prevalence and risk factors of MetS there. A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 15020 rural multi-ethnic adults from 2009 to 2010. Four widely used criteria (ATPIII\IDF\JIS\CDS) were used to measure the prevalence of MetS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of MetS. The age-Adjusted prevalence of MetS was 14.43%, 21.33%, 26.50%, and 19.89% based on the ATP III, IDF, JIS and CDS criterion, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was higher in women and increased with age. According to JIS criterion, the prevalence of components in MetS was 57.75% for abdominal obesity, 44.05% for elevated blood pressure, 40.98% for reduced HDL-cholesterol, 23.33% for elevated triglycerides, 18.95% for raised fasting plasma glucose. Lower consumption of vegetables, milk, and higher consumption of red meat were associated with higher likelihood of having MetS. The prevalence of MetS in Xinjiang rural multi-ethnic adults was high. Diet factors were associated with the prevalence of MetS.
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