Prevalence of salmonella in cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts in the United States

Guodong Zhang, Lijun Hu, David Melka, Hua Wang, Anna Laasri, Eric Wayne Brown, Errol Strain, Marc Allard, Vincent K. Bunning, Steven M. Musser, Rhoma Johnson, Sofia M.Santillana Farakos, Virginia N. Scott, Regis Pouillot, Jane M. Van Doren, Thomas S. Hammack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Of the 3,656 samples collected and tested, 32 were culturally confirmed as containing Salmonella. These isolates represented 25 serotypes. Salmonella was not detected in pecans and in-shell hazelnuts. Salmonella prevalence estimates (and 95% confidence intervals) in cashews, shelled hazelnuts, pine nuts, walnuts, and macadamia nuts were 0.55% [0.15, 1.40], 0.35% [0.04, 1.20], 0.48% [0.10, 1.40], 1.20% [0.53, 2.40], and 4.20% [2.40, 6.90], respectively. The rates of Salmonella isolation from major or big chain supermarkets, small chain supermarkets, discount, variety, or drug stores, and online were 0.64% [0.38, 1.00], 1.60% [0.80, 2.90], 0.00% [0.00, 2.40], and 13.64% [2.90, 35.00], respectively (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test: P = 0.02). The rates of Salmonella isolation for conventional and organic nuts were not significantly different. Of the samples containing Salmonella, 60.7% had levels less than 0.003 most probable number (MPN)/g. The highest contamination level observed was 0.092 MPN/g. The prevalence and levels of Salmonella in these tree nut samples were comparable to those previously reported for similar foods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)459-466
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Food Protection
Volume80
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

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Macadamia
Carya
Anacardium
macadamia nuts
Corylus
Juglans
cashew nuts
pecans
Nuts
hazelnuts
walnuts
nuts
Salmonella
Pinus
supermarkets
sampling
retail marketing
Salmonella Infections
salmonellosis
United States Food and Drug Administration

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Microbiology

Cite this

Zhang, Guodong ; Hu, Lijun ; Melka, David ; Wang, Hua ; Laasri, Anna ; Brown, Eric Wayne ; Strain, Errol ; Allard, Marc ; Bunning, Vincent K. ; Musser, Steven M. ; Johnson, Rhoma ; Farakos, Sofia M.Santillana ; Scott, Virginia N. ; Pouillot, Regis ; Van Doren, Jane M. ; Hammack, Thomas S. / Prevalence of salmonella in cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts in the United States. In: Journal of Food Protection. 2017 ; Vol. 80, No. 3. pp. 459-466.
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abstract = "Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Of the 3,656 samples collected and tested, 32 were culturally confirmed as containing Salmonella. These isolates represented 25 serotypes. Salmonella was not detected in pecans and in-shell hazelnuts. Salmonella prevalence estimates (and 95{\%} confidence intervals) in cashews, shelled hazelnuts, pine nuts, walnuts, and macadamia nuts were 0.55{\%} [0.15, 1.40], 0.35{\%} [0.04, 1.20], 0.48{\%} [0.10, 1.40], 1.20{\%} [0.53, 2.40], and 4.20{\%} [2.40, 6.90], respectively. The rates of Salmonella isolation from major or big chain supermarkets, small chain supermarkets, discount, variety, or drug stores, and online were 0.64{\%} [0.38, 1.00], 1.60{\%} [0.80, 2.90], 0.00{\%} [0.00, 2.40], and 13.64{\%} [2.90, 35.00], respectively (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test: P = 0.02). The rates of Salmonella isolation for conventional and organic nuts were not significantly different. Of the samples containing Salmonella, 60.7{\%} had levels less than 0.003 most probable number (MPN)/g. The highest contamination level observed was 0.092 MPN/g. The prevalence and levels of Salmonella in these tree nut samples were comparable to those previously reported for similar foods.",
author = "Guodong Zhang and Lijun Hu and David Melka and Hua Wang and Anna Laasri and Brown, {Eric Wayne} and Errol Strain and Marc Allard and Bunning, {Vincent K.} and Musser, {Steven M.} and Rhoma Johnson and Farakos, {Sofia M.Santillana} and Scott, {Virginia N.} and Regis Pouillot and {Van Doren}, {Jane M.} and Hammack, {Thomas S.}",
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Zhang, G, Hu, L, Melka, D, Wang, H, Laasri, A, Brown, EW, Strain, E, Allard, M, Bunning, VK, Musser, SM, Johnson, R, Farakos, SMS, Scott, VN, Pouillot, R, Van Doren, JM & Hammack, TS 2017, 'Prevalence of salmonella in cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts in the United States', Journal of Food Protection, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 459-466. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-396

Prevalence of salmonella in cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts in the United States. / Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Melka, David; Wang, Hua; Laasri, Anna; Brown, Eric Wayne; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc; Bunning, Vincent K.; Musser, Steven M.; Johnson, Rhoma; Farakos, Sofia M.Santillana; Scott, Virginia N.; Pouillot, Regis; Van Doren, Jane M.; Hammack, Thomas S.

In: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 80, No. 3, 01.03.2017, p. 459-466.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Brown, Eric Wayne

AU - Strain, Errol

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AU - Johnson, Rhoma

AU - Farakos, Sofia M.Santillana

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