Objective: To use data from a large, prospectively- acquired regional collaborative database to compare the risk of infectious complications associated with three American Urologic Association- recommended antibiotic prophylaxis pathways, including culture-directed or augmented antibiotics, following prostate biopsy. Methods: Data on prostate biopsies and outcomes were collected from the Pennsylvania Urologic Regional Collaborative, a regional quality collaborative working to improve the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Patients were categorized as receiving one of three prophylaxis pathways: culture-directed, augmented, or provider-discretion. Infectious complications included fever, urinary tract infections or sepsis within one month of biopsy. Odds ratios of infectious complication by pathway were determined, and univariate and multivariate analyses of patient and biopsy characteristics were performed. Results: 11,940 biopsies were included, 120 of which resulted in infectious outcomes. Of the total biopsies, 3246 used “culture-directed”, 1446 used “augmented” and 7207 used “provider-discretion” prophylaxis. Compared to provider-discretion, the culture-directed pathway had 84% less chance of any infectious outcome (OR= 0.159, 95% CI = [0.074, 0.344], P < 0.001). There was no difference in infectious complications between augmented and provider-discretion pathways. Conclusions: The culture-directed pathway for transrectal prostate biopsy resulted in significantly fewer infectious complications compared to other prophylaxis strategies. Tailoring antibiotics addresses antibiotic-resistant bacteria and reduces future risk of resistance. These findings make a strong case for incorporating culture-directed antibiotic prophylaxis into clinical practice guidelines to reduce infection following prostate biopsies.
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