Cervix carcinoma is an important health problem world-wide, being the second most common cancer among women, ranking first in many developing countries. A number of important epidemiological risk factors have been identified as contributing to the development of CIN and invasive cervix carcinoma. Of key importance is infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the primary risk factor. There are evolving primary and secondary preventive strategies that could further reduce the burden from cervical carcinoma. The possible primary preventive strategies include risk reduction, diet or dietary supplements, HPV vaccines, and other chemopreventive agents. The possible advances in secondary preventive strategies include new technologies for Pap smears, HPV typing triage, and other adjuvant screening procedures. The impact of these strategies will depend upon evidence to support their use along with the characteristics of the population and environment in which they are used. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
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