OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of in-shoe orthoses that were designed based on shape and barefoot plantar pressure in reducing the incidence of submetatarsal head plantar ulcers in people with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of similar prior ulceration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Single-blinded multicenter randomized controlled trial with subjects randomized towear shape- and pressure-based orthoses (experimental, n = 66) or standard-ofcare A5513 orthoses (control, n = 64). Patients were followed for 15 months, until a study end point (forefoot plantar ulcer or nonulcerative plantar forefoot lesion) or to study termination. Proportional hazards regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: There was a trend in the composite primary end point (both ulcers and nonulcerative lesions) across the full follow-up period (P = 0.13) in favor of the experimental orthoses. This trend was due to a marked difference in ulcer occurrence (P = 0.007) but no difference in the rate of nonulcerative lesions (P = 0.76). At 180 days, the ulcer prevention effect of the experimental orthoses was already significant (P = 0.003) when compared with control, and the benefit of the experimental orthoses with respect to the composite end point was also significant (P = 0.042). The hazard ratio was 3.4 (95% CI 1.3- 8.7) for the occurrence of a submetatarsal head plantar ulcer in the control compared with experimental arm over the duration of the study. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that shape- and barefoot plantar pressure -based orthoses were more effective in reducing submetatarsal head plantar ulcer recurrence than current standard-of-care orthoses, but they did not signi fi cantly reduce nonulcerative lesions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing