Problem-solving processes in an educational construction simulation game

Fadi Castronovo, Nicholas Stepanik, Peggy N. Van Meter, John I. Messner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The growing adoption of educational simulation games in construction pedagogy has significantly impacted student learning. One game, the Virtual Construction Simulator 4 (VCS4), has been found to support student learning of how to solve complex construction problems. However, further research is warranted to evaluate the thinking processes that students engage while playing the game. This study examines those thinking processes by analyzing verbal protocols collected as students thought aloud while playing VCS4 game modules and resulting verbal protocols were coded to capture both cognitive and metacognitive operations. Patterns of thought revealed by this coding were then compared to the patterns expected based on the intentions of game design. The results show that students do generally exhibit the expected patterns. These findings support the claim that students engaged in complex higher-order thinking processes and skills, which evolved based on the types of construction projects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101574
JournalAdvanced Engineering Informatics
StatePublished - Apr 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Information Systems
  • Building and Construction
  • Artificial Intelligence


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