In view of the compendium of field evidence and supporting analysis work indicating the possible damaging effects of vertical earthquake ground motion, this paper addresses the problem of code-type vertical force calculation. In light of recent engineering seismology studies of the relationship between vertical and horizontal peak ground acceleration, the inadequacy of the 2/3-rule depicted by codes is highlighted. A simple piece-wise linear relationship is proposed and shown to represent existing strong-motion measurements adequately. Bilinear and inelastic spectra are derived and studied. It is demonstrated that net tensile forces and displacements may ensue, thus eroding the shear resistance of RC columns. A simple procedure is outlined whereby modal analysis may be employed to estimate conservatively vertical earthquake forces on buildings. Finally, areas of further exploration and refinement are identified.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Building and Construction
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology