Significant progress has been made over the past decade in haploidentical transplantation, with the development of novel methods to control intense alloreactive reactions generated in the major HLA-mismatched setting. Application of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide has gained worldwide acceptance as an effective and low-cost way to perform this type of transplantation, with outcomes now similar to those from HLA-matched unrelated donors. These advances have resulted in improved treatment-related mortality, whereas disease relapse has emerged as the most common cause of treatment failure. In addition, improvements in immunologic reconstitution after transplantation are much needed, not only in haploidentical transplantation but in all forms of stem cell transplantation. This symposium has focused on some of the most promising methods to control alloreactivity in this form of transplantation and application of cellular therapy to prevent disease relapse after transplantation, as well as understanding immunologic reconstitution and foreseeable approaches to improve immune recovery after transplantation.
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