Prognostic Importance and Predictors of Survival in Isolated Tricuspid Regurgitation: A Growing Problem

Erin A. Fender, Ioana Petrescu, Filip Ionescu, Chad J. Zack, Sorin V. Pislaru, Vuyisile T. Nkomo, Jordan J. Cochuyt, David O. Hodge, Rick A. Nishimura

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Abstract

Objective: To define mortality associated with isolated tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and identify risk factors associated with decreased survival. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of residents of southeastern Minnesota with moderate-severe or more severe isolated TR diagnosed between January 1, 2005, and April 15, 2015. Isolated TR was defined as TR in the absence of left-sided heart disease or pulmonary hypertension. Patients with an ejection fraction of less than 50%, right ventricular systolic pressure greater than 45 mm Hg, moderate or more severe left-sided valve disease, congenital cardiac anomalies, previous valve operation, tricuspid stenosis, flail leaflet, carcinoid, and rheumatic disease were excluded. Five-year survival was compared with age- and sex-matched Minnesota census bureau data. Multivariate regression was used to identify variables associated with mortality. Results: Over a 10-year period, 289 patients with isolated TR were identified. The mean ± SD age was 79.2±10.6 years, 70.6% (204) were women, atrial fibrillation was present in 74.0% (214), and 24.6% (71) had an intracardiac device. By 5 years after diagnosis, 51.5% had been hospitalized for heart failure. Observed 5-year mortality was 47.8% compared with 36.3% in the census data (P=.005). After adjusting for age and other comorbidities, multivariate regression identified a dilated inferior vena cava (≥2.1 cm) without respiratory variation on echocardiography (hazard ratio, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.31; P=.02) and creatinine level greater than 1.6 mg/dL (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.16-2.8; P=.009) as associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: Patients with isolated TR are frequently hospitalized for heart failure and experience excess mortality. Elevated right atrial pressure and renal dysfunction are associated with mortality. This poor outcome may have implications for timing of intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2032-2039
Number of pages8
JournalMayo Clinic Proceedings
Volume94
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

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    Fender, E. A., Petrescu, I., Ionescu, F., Zack, C. J., Pislaru, S. V., Nkomo, V. T., Cochuyt, J. J., Hodge, D. O., & Nishimura, R. A. (2019). Prognostic Importance and Predictors of Survival in Isolated Tricuspid Regurgitation: A Growing Problem. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 94(10), 2032-2039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.04.036