Several new technologies are emerging based on the ability of certain bacteria, called exoelectrogens, to transfer electrons between respiratory enzymes inside the cell to exogenous surfaces such as an electrode. Two of the most promising technologies are microbial fuel cells, used for electricity generation, and bioelectrochemically assisted microbial reactors (BEAMRs), used for hydrogen production. Key attributes for scale up are anodes and cathodes that have high surface areas, cathodes that allow for oxygen reduction in a non-fouling manner, and the need for non-precious metal catalysts. Recent advancements have been made based on the development of new materials and configurations suitable for scale up of these electrodes. Thus, it is now possible to design and scale up reactors for generating electricity from dissolved organic matter.