Since its conception, nanotechnology has gained substantial momentum and transformed nearly every field of science and technology. In the field of nanomedicine, a variety of nanobiomaterials have been developed as unique platforms to detect and deliver therapeutic agents in the treatment of life-threatening diseases. A brief review of recent publications reveals that these therapeutic platforms can be nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, liposomes, metallic nanoparticles and semiconductor derived quantum dots. When compared to traditional therapeutic systems, theranostic nanomedicine is an emerging field that employs a multifunctional approach to specifically target, diagnose and deliver therapeutic agents using a single platform to treat diseases such as cancers. This chapter will focus on the recent progress of nanobiomaterials toward theranostic nanomedicine for tackling unmet clinical problems.
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