Prospective phase II trial to evaluate the complications and kinetics of chimerism induction following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with fludarabine and busulfan

Akiko M. Saito, Masahiro Kami, Shin Ichiro Mori, Yoshinobu Kanda, Ritsuro Suzuki, Shin Mineishi, Akiyoshi Takami, Shuichi Taniguchi, Yoshinobu Takemoto, Masamichi Hara, Masaki Yamaguchi, Masayuki Hino, Takashi Yoshida, Sung Won Kim, Akiko Hori, Yasuo Ohashi, Yoichi Takaue

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14 Scopus citations

Abstract

This prospective trial assessed the safety and efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a HLA-matched donor with a reduced-intensity regimen (RIST) consisting of iv fludarabine 30 mg/m 2 for 6 days and oral busulfan 4 mg/kg/day for 2 days in patients older than 50 years with hematological malignancies. Cyclosporine alone or cyclosporine with short-term methotrexate was randomized for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. After 30 patients had been enrolled, an interim analysis was performed, and this report focuses on a precise evaluation of the toxicity profile and chimerism kinetics. Sustained engraftment in all patients, no severe regimen-related toxicity (RRT) within 20 days, and no transplant-related mortality through Day 100 were observed. T-cell (CD3+) full-donor (over 90%) chimerism was observed in 22 of the 30 patients, while the remaining eight had mixed-donor chimerism over 77% on Day 90. Thereafter, five subsequently converted to full-donor chimerism without donor lymphocyte infusion by day 120 (n = 4) or Day 180 (n = 1). Two showed persistent mixed chimerism without relapse through Day 180. Grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease occurred in 10% and 73%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 1.5 years, overall survival and disease-free survival at 1 year was 83% and 62%, respectively. Seven patients hematologically relapsed overall, and five of them had myelodysplastic syndrome with poor prognostic factors. In older patients, RIST with fludarabine and busulfan was associated with acceptable toxicities and a satisfactory antileukemia effect, regardless of the early chimerism status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)873-880
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Hematology
Volume82
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hematology

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