Background: To assess: (a) cancer treatment in prostate cancer survivors (PCS) by age at diagnosis (ADx) and prostate cancer (PC) aggressiveness; (b) potential impact on PC mortality; and (c) these results in the context of environmental/behavioral risk factors on PCS in Pennsylvania. Methods: Prostate cancer survivors ages ≥40 years were identified from the 2004-2014 Pennsylvania Cancer Registry (PCR). Demographic/clinical descriptors and PC treatment were extracted from PCR. Prostate cancer aggressiveness was defined by clinical/pathologic Gleason score and tumor stage. Logistic and Cox regression analyses tested associations between treatment received and PC-specific mortality. County-level data from the Pennsylvania BRFSS were used to estimate cancer-related behavioral risk factors (eg, smoking, physical inactivity, fruit/vegetable consumption [FV], alcohol use) and used as covariates. Results: There were 90 694 PCS ages 40-105 years (mean age = 66.19 years, SD = 9.25) included. Most were non-Hispanic white men (83%). Prostate cancer survivors ≥75 years were least likely to receive any treatment but men ages 65-74 were more likely to receive combined therapies (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.28, 1.69) vs PCS ages 40-54 years, controlling for covariates. Prostate cancer survivors 55-75+ with aggressive PC who received any treatment vs no definitive treatment had significantly reduced mortality. Men from counties with high obesity and smoking rates were significantly less likely to receive any treatment than men living in counties with lower rates of these risk factors. Prostate cancer survivors who lived in counties with high rates of physical inactivity and had high rates of sufficient FV consumption were slightly more likely to receive cancer treatment vs no definitive treatment compared to men who lived in counties with high rates of physical activity and lower FV consumption. Conclusions: We observed a general age-related decline in receipt of treatment. Prostate cancer survivors ages ≥75 years were significantly less likely to get any cancer treatment compared to younger PCS. However, most men with more aggressive disease who received any treatment had greatly reduced PC mortality, regardless of age. Considering environmental/behavioral risk factors may attenuate PC risk and inform treatment options.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research