Background: Cigarette and e-cigarette use are prevalent among Canadian adolescents. Evidence shows psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent cigarette smoking, but little is known about psychological well-being among dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. This study examined the association between dual-use status and psychological well-being among high school students. Methods: We used the 2016–2017 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Survey. Scales of psychological well-being (relatedness, autonomy, competency, prosocial behavior, and social responsiveness) were derived from self-reported data. Dual-use status was categorized into non-users, cigarette-only smokers, e-cigarette-only users, and four types of dual-users. Multivariable linear regression models examined the association between dual-use and psychological well-being. Results: Among the participants, 6.3% were current dual-users, 4.1% were cigarette-only smokers, 12.6% were e-cigarette-only users, and 77.0% were non-users. Compared to non-users, relatedness and social responsiveness were lower for all users. When compared to e-cigarette users, most other users had lower relatedness (high-frequency dual-users [β=-6.05], high-frequency cigarette dual-users [β=-2.27], high-frequency e-cigarette dual-users: [β=-1.32], low-frequency dual-users [β=-1.91], and cigarette-only smokers [β=-1.66]) and social responsiveness. High-frequency dual-users had lower scores for relatedness and social responsiveness, while high-frequency cigarette dual-users had higher autonomy, compared to low-frequency dual-users. Conclusion: Dual-users had poorer psychological well-being, which differed among dual-user sub-groups. This study highlights an opportunity for specialized programs to promote psychological well-being and reduce tobacco product use among adolescents. Limitations: The study is based on respondent self-report, and the use of cross-sectional data precludes us from determining the temporal order between dual-use and psychological well-being.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health