An existing 13-item composite circadian rhythm ‘morningness’ scale was simplified into a ‘(BA)sic (L)anguage (M)orningness’ (BALM) scale at a seventh grade (12–13 years) reading level. It was given to 150 each of continuously rotating shiftworkers and fixed-schedule dayworkers in an industrial manufacturing plant. Multiple factor analyses confirmed three prior identified factors, morningness/effort, morning alert, and evening. Morningness scores for dayworkers were higher than for shiftworkers (p>;000l). The BALM scale revision is suitable for most worker levels. A suggested psychometrically ‘purer’ 9-item morningness scale omits the inconsistent evening factor scale items.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Human Factors and Ergonomics
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation