Public opinion, organized interests, and policy congruence in initiative and noninitiative U.S. states

James Monogan, Virginia Gray, David Lynn Lowery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations


We consider the impact of direct democracy on state public policy by examining whether initiatives alter the effects of predictors in models of general state policy liberalism. These analyses are couched in Erikson, Wright, and McIver's (1993) opinion liberalism model of state public policy, as augmented by Gray et al.'s (2004) inclusion of measures of organized interests. After presenting our theoretical expectations, we test the different ways that public opinion, organized interests, and initiatives can interact in the determination of public policy with a variety of models. We find little evidence that initiatives alter the congruence between opinion and policy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)304-324
Number of pages21
JournalState Politics and Policy Quarterly
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2009


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Political Science and International Relations

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