Pulsed-Laser Deposited 35 Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2) O3-65 PbTiO3 Thin Films - Part I: Influence of Processing on Composition, Microstructure, and Ferroelectric Hysteresis

Carl Morandi, Jennifer L. Gray, Wes Auker, Susan Trolier-Mckinstry

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Abstract

35 Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 - 65 PbTiO3 (35 BiMT-65 PT) is a potential candidate material for a high-temperature nonvolatile ferroelectric memory. For pulsed-laser deposited 35 BiMT-65 PT films with the perovskite structure, it was found that as the chamber pressure during deposition decreased, the Mg and Pb contents in as-deposited films drop, while the concentration of Bi increases. Concurrently with the change in composition, the remanent polarization P-r increases 64% to ≈ 21μ C /cm2 and the polarization-electric field loops rotated counterclockwise as the deposition pressure increases. Decreasing the seed layer thickness from 36 to 16 nm led to a decrease in P-r to ≈ 14μ C /cm2. Adjusting the target composition allowed the deposition of films which had near-stoichiometric Bi and Mg concentrations, but in all cases, the grown films were lead deficient. These films had remanent polarizations of 18- 20μC/cm2. If the lead content of the target was increased too far, the remanent polarization decreased, possibly due to the need to evolve more PbO from defective growth layers. Finally, the deposition rate showed no substantial effect on the film composition, but did have a significant impact on the ferroelectric properties. As the deposition rate decreased, the P-r increased to ≈ 22μ C /cm2 due to enhanced crystalline quality. At laser frequencies of 5 Hz, a Mg-rich pyrochlore phase begins to form and films showed a maximum P-r≈ 22μC/cm2. The processing-composition behavior is explained via preferential adsorption of Bi on the A-site, which results in lead vacancies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8334249
Pages (from-to)1525-1533
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
Volume65
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2018

Fingerprint

Pulsed lasers
Ferroelectric materials
Hysteresis
pulsed lasers
hysteresis
Thin films
microstructure
Microstructure
thin films
Processing
Chemical analysis
Remanence
polarization
Deposition rates
Lead
pressure chambers
Perovskite
Vacancies
Seed
seeds

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Pulsed-Laser Deposited 35 Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2) O3-65 PbTiO3 Thin Films - Part I: Influence of Processing on Composition, Microstructure, and Ferroelectric Hysteresis",
abstract = "35 Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 - 65 PbTiO3 (35 BiMT-65 PT) is a potential candidate material for a high-temperature nonvolatile ferroelectric memory. For pulsed-laser deposited 35 BiMT-65 PT films with the perovskite structure, it was found that as the chamber pressure during deposition decreased, the Mg and Pb contents in as-deposited films drop, while the concentration of Bi increases. Concurrently with the change in composition, the remanent polarization P-r increases 64{\%} to ≈ 21μ C /cm2 and the polarization-electric field loops rotated counterclockwise as the deposition pressure increases. Decreasing the seed layer thickness from 36 to 16 nm led to a decrease in P-r to ≈ 14μ C /cm2. Adjusting the target composition allowed the deposition of films which had near-stoichiometric Bi and Mg concentrations, but in all cases, the grown films were lead deficient. These films had remanent polarizations of 18- 20μC/cm2. If the lead content of the target was increased too far, the remanent polarization decreased, possibly due to the need to evolve more PbO from defective growth layers. Finally, the deposition rate showed no substantial effect on the film composition, but did have a significant impact on the ferroelectric properties. As the deposition rate decreased, the P-r increased to ≈ 22μ C /cm2 due to enhanced crystalline quality. At laser frequencies of 5 Hz, a Mg-rich pyrochlore phase begins to form and films showed a maximum P-r≈ 22μC/cm2. The processing-composition behavior is explained via preferential adsorption of Bi on the A-site, which results in lead vacancies.",
author = "Carl Morandi and Gray, {Jennifer L.} and Wes Auker and Susan Trolier-Mckinstry",
year = "2018",
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language = "English (US)",
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T1 - Pulsed-Laser Deposited 35 Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2) O3-65 PbTiO3 Thin Films - Part I

T2 - Influence of Processing on Composition, Microstructure, and Ferroelectric Hysteresis

AU - Morandi, Carl

AU - Gray, Jennifer L.

AU - Auker, Wes

AU - Trolier-Mckinstry, Susan

PY - 2018/9

Y1 - 2018/9

N2 - 35 Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 - 65 PbTiO3 (35 BiMT-65 PT) is a potential candidate material for a high-temperature nonvolatile ferroelectric memory. For pulsed-laser deposited 35 BiMT-65 PT films with the perovskite structure, it was found that as the chamber pressure during deposition decreased, the Mg and Pb contents in as-deposited films drop, while the concentration of Bi increases. Concurrently with the change in composition, the remanent polarization P-r increases 64% to ≈ 21μ C /cm2 and the polarization-electric field loops rotated counterclockwise as the deposition pressure increases. Decreasing the seed layer thickness from 36 to 16 nm led to a decrease in P-r to ≈ 14μ C /cm2. Adjusting the target composition allowed the deposition of films which had near-stoichiometric Bi and Mg concentrations, but in all cases, the grown films were lead deficient. These films had remanent polarizations of 18- 20μC/cm2. If the lead content of the target was increased too far, the remanent polarization decreased, possibly due to the need to evolve more PbO from defective growth layers. Finally, the deposition rate showed no substantial effect on the film composition, but did have a significant impact on the ferroelectric properties. As the deposition rate decreased, the P-r increased to ≈ 22μ C /cm2 due to enhanced crystalline quality. At laser frequencies of 5 Hz, a Mg-rich pyrochlore phase begins to form and films showed a maximum P-r≈ 22μC/cm2. The processing-composition behavior is explained via preferential adsorption of Bi on the A-site, which results in lead vacancies.

AB - 35 Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 - 65 PbTiO3 (35 BiMT-65 PT) is a potential candidate material for a high-temperature nonvolatile ferroelectric memory. For pulsed-laser deposited 35 BiMT-65 PT films with the perovskite structure, it was found that as the chamber pressure during deposition decreased, the Mg and Pb contents in as-deposited films drop, while the concentration of Bi increases. Concurrently with the change in composition, the remanent polarization P-r increases 64% to ≈ 21μ C /cm2 and the polarization-electric field loops rotated counterclockwise as the deposition pressure increases. Decreasing the seed layer thickness from 36 to 16 nm led to a decrease in P-r to ≈ 14μ C /cm2. Adjusting the target composition allowed the deposition of films which had near-stoichiometric Bi and Mg concentrations, but in all cases, the grown films were lead deficient. These films had remanent polarizations of 18- 20μC/cm2. If the lead content of the target was increased too far, the remanent polarization decreased, possibly due to the need to evolve more PbO from defective growth layers. Finally, the deposition rate showed no substantial effect on the film composition, but did have a significant impact on the ferroelectric properties. As the deposition rate decreased, the P-r increased to ≈ 22μ C /cm2 due to enhanced crystalline quality. At laser frequencies of 5 Hz, a Mg-rich pyrochlore phase begins to form and films showed a maximum P-r≈ 22μC/cm2. The processing-composition behavior is explained via preferential adsorption of Bi on the A-site, which results in lead vacancies.

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