Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3-D printing of concrete allows for construction of arbitrary shape structures without a mold. Since reproducibility of 3-D printed concrete is lower than that of conventional fabrication, each 3-D printed structure should be monitored for proper curing. Conventional qualification of concrete is based on several tests, including destructive compressive strength measurements. Because a structure is 3-D printed layer-by-layer, the surfaces of AM concrete structures have significant surface roughness. This limits the applicability of conventional nondestructive testing methods. We investigated qualification of 3-D printed mortar by monitoring curing with nondestructive electrical conductivity measurements. Bulk resistance of concrete was extracted from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements made using custom flexible self-adhesive electrodes, which contour to rough surfaces. We show that bulk resistivity of concrete increases linearly with time. This allows for developing a calibration curve for compressive strength lookup from nondestructive electrical conductivity measurements. Conductivity measurements also allow for estimation of formation factor, which is an indicator of mortar permeability.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement|
|State||Published - 2021|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering