Objective: To evaluate racial (Black/White) differences in overdose response training and take-home naloxone (THN) possession and administration among clients and nonclients of the Baltimore syringe service program (SSP). Methods: The study derived data from a cross-sectional survey of 263 (183 SSP clients, 80 nonclients) people who inject drugs (PWID). The study recruited SSP clients using targeted sampling and recruited nonclients through peer referral from April to November 2016. Results: In our sample, 61% of the participants were Black, 42% were between the ages of 18 and 44, and 70% were males. SSP clients, regardless of race, were more likely to have received overdose response training than Black nonclients (Black clients AOR: 3.85, 95% CI: 1.88, 7.92; White clients AOR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.75). The study found no significant differences in overdose response training between Black and White nonclients. SSP clients and White nonclients were more likely to possess THN than Black nonclients (Black clients: AOR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.00, 8.87; White clients: AOR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.56, 8.04; White nonclients AOR: 4.49, 95% CI: 1.50,13.47). Conclusion: SSP clients were more likely to receive overdose response training than their nonclient peers who they referred to the study, illustrating the utility of SSPs in reaching PWID at high risk of overdose. We also observed that Black PWID, who did not access services at the SSP, were the least likely to possess THN, suggesting the need to employ outreach targeting Black PWID who do not access this central harm reduction intervention.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Phychiatric Mental Health
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Clinical Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health