Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes catalyze an astonishing array of complex and chemically challenging reactions across all domains of life. Of approximately 114,000 of these enzymes, 8 are known to be present in humans: MOCS1, molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis; LIAS, lipoic acid biosynthesis; CDK5RAP1, 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenosine biosynthesis; CDKAL1, methylthio-N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis; TYW1, wybutosine biosynthesis; ELP3, 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl uridine; and RSAD1 and viperin, both of unknown function. Aberrations in the genes encoding these proteins result in a variety of diseases. In this review, we summarize the biochemical characterization of these 8 radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes and, in the context of human health, describe the deleterious effects that result from such genetic mutations.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||30|
|Journal||Annual review of biochemistry|
|State||Published - Jun 2 2016|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes