Rag GTPases and AMPK/TSC2/Rheb mediate the differential regulation of mTORC1 signaling in response to alcohol and leucine

Ly Hong, C. Randell Brown, Abid Kazi, Maithili Navaratnarajah, Charles Lang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Leucine (Leu) and insulin both stimulate muscle protein synthesis, albeit at least in part via separate signaling pathways. While alcohol (EtOH) suppresses insulin-stimulated protein synthesis in cultured myocytes, its ability to disrupt Leu signaling and Rag GTPase activity has not been determined. Likewise, little is known regarding the interaction of EtOH and Leu on the AMPK/TSC2/Rheb pathway. Treatment of myocytes with EtOH (100 mM) decreased protein synthesis, whereas Leu (2 mM) increased synthesis. In combination, EtOH suppressed the anabolic effect of Leu. The effects of EtOH and Leu were associated with coordinate changes in the phosphorylation state of mTOR, raptor, and their downstream targets 4EBP1 and S6K1. As such, EtOH suppressed the ability of Leu to activate these signaling components. The Rag signaling pathway was activated by Leu but suppressed by EtOH, as evidenced by changes in the interaction of Rag proteins with mTOR and raptor. Overexpression of constitutively active (ca)RagA and caRagC increased mTORC1 activity, as determined by increased S6K1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the caRagAcaRagC heterodimer blocked the inhibitory effect of EtOH. EtOH and Leu produced differential effects on AMPK signaling. EtOH enhanced AMPK activity, resulting in increased TSC2 (S1387) and eEF2 phosphorylation, whereas Leu had the opposite effect. EtOH also decreased the interaction of Rheb with mTOR, and this was prevented by Leu. Collectively, our results indicate that EtOH inhibits the anabolic effects that Leu has on protein synthesis and mTORC1 activity by modulating both Rag GTPase function and AMPK/TSC2/ Rheb signaling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology
Volume302
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2012

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AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
GTP Phosphohydrolases
Leucine
Alcohols
Raptors
Anabolic Agents
Phosphorylation
Muscle Cells
mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1
TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
Insulin
Proteins
Muscle Proteins

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cell Biology
  • Physiology

Cite this

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title = "Rag GTPases and AMPK/TSC2/Rheb mediate the differential regulation of mTORC1 signaling in response to alcohol and leucine",
abstract = "Leucine (Leu) and insulin both stimulate muscle protein synthesis, albeit at least in part via separate signaling pathways. While alcohol (EtOH) suppresses insulin-stimulated protein synthesis in cultured myocytes, its ability to disrupt Leu signaling and Rag GTPase activity has not been determined. Likewise, little is known regarding the interaction of EtOH and Leu on the AMPK/TSC2/Rheb pathway. Treatment of myocytes with EtOH (100 mM) decreased protein synthesis, whereas Leu (2 mM) increased synthesis. In combination, EtOH suppressed the anabolic effect of Leu. The effects of EtOH and Leu were associated with coordinate changes in the phosphorylation state of mTOR, raptor, and their downstream targets 4EBP1 and S6K1. As such, EtOH suppressed the ability of Leu to activate these signaling components. The Rag signaling pathway was activated by Leu but suppressed by EtOH, as evidenced by changes in the interaction of Rag proteins with mTOR and raptor. Overexpression of constitutively active (ca)RagA and caRagC increased mTORC1 activity, as determined by increased S6K1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the caRagAcaRagC heterodimer blocked the inhibitory effect of EtOH. EtOH and Leu produced differential effects on AMPK signaling. EtOH enhanced AMPK activity, resulting in increased TSC2 (S1387) and eEF2 phosphorylation, whereas Leu had the opposite effect. EtOH also decreased the interaction of Rheb with mTOR, and this was prevented by Leu. Collectively, our results indicate that EtOH inhibits the anabolic effects that Leu has on protein synthesis and mTORC1 activity by modulating both Rag GTPase function and AMPK/TSC2/ Rheb signaling.",
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Rag GTPases and AMPK/TSC2/Rheb mediate the differential regulation of mTORC1 signaling in response to alcohol and leucine. / Hong, Ly; Randell Brown, C.; Kazi, Abid; Navaratnarajah, Maithili; Lang, Charles.

In: American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, Vol. 302, No. 10, 15.05.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rag GTPases and AMPK/TSC2/Rheb mediate the differential regulation of mTORC1 signaling in response to alcohol and leucine

AU - Hong, Ly

AU - Randell Brown, C.

AU - Kazi, Abid

AU - Navaratnarajah, Maithili

AU - Lang, Charles

PY - 2012/5/15

Y1 - 2012/5/15

N2 - Leucine (Leu) and insulin both stimulate muscle protein synthesis, albeit at least in part via separate signaling pathways. While alcohol (EtOH) suppresses insulin-stimulated protein synthesis in cultured myocytes, its ability to disrupt Leu signaling and Rag GTPase activity has not been determined. Likewise, little is known regarding the interaction of EtOH and Leu on the AMPK/TSC2/Rheb pathway. Treatment of myocytes with EtOH (100 mM) decreased protein synthesis, whereas Leu (2 mM) increased synthesis. In combination, EtOH suppressed the anabolic effect of Leu. The effects of EtOH and Leu were associated with coordinate changes in the phosphorylation state of mTOR, raptor, and their downstream targets 4EBP1 and S6K1. As such, EtOH suppressed the ability of Leu to activate these signaling components. The Rag signaling pathway was activated by Leu but suppressed by EtOH, as evidenced by changes in the interaction of Rag proteins with mTOR and raptor. Overexpression of constitutively active (ca)RagA and caRagC increased mTORC1 activity, as determined by increased S6K1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the caRagAcaRagC heterodimer blocked the inhibitory effect of EtOH. EtOH and Leu produced differential effects on AMPK signaling. EtOH enhanced AMPK activity, resulting in increased TSC2 (S1387) and eEF2 phosphorylation, whereas Leu had the opposite effect. EtOH also decreased the interaction of Rheb with mTOR, and this was prevented by Leu. Collectively, our results indicate that EtOH inhibits the anabolic effects that Leu has on protein synthesis and mTORC1 activity by modulating both Rag GTPase function and AMPK/TSC2/ Rheb signaling.

AB - Leucine (Leu) and insulin both stimulate muscle protein synthesis, albeit at least in part via separate signaling pathways. While alcohol (EtOH) suppresses insulin-stimulated protein synthesis in cultured myocytes, its ability to disrupt Leu signaling and Rag GTPase activity has not been determined. Likewise, little is known regarding the interaction of EtOH and Leu on the AMPK/TSC2/Rheb pathway. Treatment of myocytes with EtOH (100 mM) decreased protein synthesis, whereas Leu (2 mM) increased synthesis. In combination, EtOH suppressed the anabolic effect of Leu. The effects of EtOH and Leu were associated with coordinate changes in the phosphorylation state of mTOR, raptor, and their downstream targets 4EBP1 and S6K1. As such, EtOH suppressed the ability of Leu to activate these signaling components. The Rag signaling pathway was activated by Leu but suppressed by EtOH, as evidenced by changes in the interaction of Rag proteins with mTOR and raptor. Overexpression of constitutively active (ca)RagA and caRagC increased mTORC1 activity, as determined by increased S6K1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the caRagAcaRagC heterodimer blocked the inhibitory effect of EtOH. EtOH and Leu produced differential effects on AMPK signaling. EtOH enhanced AMPK activity, resulting in increased TSC2 (S1387) and eEF2 phosphorylation, whereas Leu had the opposite effect. EtOH also decreased the interaction of Rheb with mTOR, and this was prevented by Leu. Collectively, our results indicate that EtOH inhibits the anabolic effects that Leu has on protein synthesis and mTORC1 activity by modulating both Rag GTPase function and AMPK/TSC2/ Rheb signaling.

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