Raman spectroscopy has drawn considerable attention in biomedical sensing due to the promise of label-free, multiplexed, and objective analysis along with the ability to gain molecular insights into complex biological samples. However, its true potential is yet to be realized due to the intrinsically weak Raman signal. Here, we report a simple, inexpensive and reproducible signal enhancement strategy featuring graphene as a substrate. Taking key blood constituent proteins as representative examples, we show that Raman spectra acquired from biomacromolecules can be reproducibly enhanced when these molecules are placed in contact with graphene. In particular, we demonstrate that hemoglobin and albumin display significant, but different, enhancement with the enhancement factor depending on the Raman modes, excitation wavelengths, and analyte concentrations. This technique offers a new strategy for label-free biosensing owing to the molecular fingerprinting capability, signal reliability, and simplicity of the enhancement method.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering