We have carried out in situ Raman studies during the electrochemical insertion of lithium ions (Li+) into pristine and thermally treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). We found an improved structural integrity as well as the removal of defects in the thermally treated tubes. The different Li+ insertion behaviors above 0.5 V in as-grown and thermally treated tubes could be explained by the presence of defects on the outer surface of the tubes. No change of Raman spectra from 2.8 to 0.8 V is characterized by the coverage of Li+ on the outer surface of tubes, whereas the upshift of G band and the absence of a separated G band below 0.75 V indicate the formation of diluted graphite intercalation below the stage-2 phase (LiC 12).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)