Random noise polarimetry is a new radar technique for high-resolution probing of subsurface objects and interfaces. Detection of buried targets is accomplished by cross-correlating the reflected signal by a time-delayed replica of the transmitted waveform. A unique signal processing scheme is used to inject coherent in the system to permit extraction of the wideband polarimetric scattering response of the buried object. This facilitates computation of the Stokes matrices of the target response which enhances the detection and identification process. Random noise polarimetry also possesses additional desirable features for subsurface probing such as immunity from detection and jamming. The paper discusses the theoretical foundations of random noise polarimetry and presents data acquired from various targets using a 1 - 2 GHz radar system fabricated by the University of Nebraska under contract to the U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station. In addition, various signal processing algorithms used to analyze the polarimetric data are presented.