Rapid Reduction of the Diferric-Peroxyhemiacetal Intermediate in Aldehyde-Deformylating Oxygenase by a Cyanobacterial Ferredoxin: Evidence for a Free-Radical Mechanism

Lauren J. Rajakovich, Hanne Nørgaard, Douglas Warui, Wei Chen Chang, Ning Li, Squire J. Booker, Carsten Krebs, Joseph M. Bollinger, Jr., Maria Eirini Pandelia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a ferritin-like nonheme-diiron enzyme that catalyzes the last step in a pathway through which fatty acids are converted into hydrocarbons in cyanobacteria. ADO catalyzes conversion of a fatty aldehyde to the corresponding alk(a/e)ne and formate, consuming four electrons and one molecule of O2 per turnover and incorporating one atom from O2 into the formate coproduct. The source of the reducing equivalents in vivo has not been definitively established, but a cyanobacterial [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (PetF), reduced by ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) using NADPH, has been implicated. We show that both the diferric form of Nostoc punctiforme ADO and its (putative) diferric-peroxyhemiacetal intermediate are reduced much more rapidly by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 PetF than by the previously employed chemical reductant, 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methyl sulfate. The yield of formate and alkane per reduced PetF approaches its theoretical upper limit when reduction of the intermediate is carried out in the presence of FNR. Reduction of the intermediate by either system leads to accumulation of a substrate-derived peroxyl radical as a result of off-pathway trapping of the C2-alkyl radical intermediate by excess O2, which consequently diminishes the yield of the hydrocarbon product. A sulfinyl radical located on residue Cys71 also accumulates with short-chain aldehydes. The detection of these radicals under turnover conditions provides the most direct evidence to date for a free-radical mechanism. Additionally, our results expose an inefficiency of the enzyme in processing its radical intermediate, presenting a target for optimization of bioprocesses exploiting this hydrocarbon-production pathway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11695-11709
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume137
Issue number36
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 16 2015

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formic acid
Ferredoxins
Oxygenases
Aldehydes
Free radicals
Free Radicals
Hydrocarbons
Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase
Nostoc
Synechocystis
Enzymes
Alkanes
Reducing Agents
Cyanobacteria
Ferritins
NADP
Fatty Acids
Fatty acids
Paraffins
Electrons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

Cite this

@article{e1f175505c0844bc8bfbbd23ad8e536f,
title = "Rapid Reduction of the Diferric-Peroxyhemiacetal Intermediate in Aldehyde-Deformylating Oxygenase by a Cyanobacterial Ferredoxin: Evidence for a Free-Radical Mechanism",
abstract = "Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a ferritin-like nonheme-diiron enzyme that catalyzes the last step in a pathway through which fatty acids are converted into hydrocarbons in cyanobacteria. ADO catalyzes conversion of a fatty aldehyde to the corresponding alk(a/e)ne and formate, consuming four electrons and one molecule of O2 per turnover and incorporating one atom from O2 into the formate coproduct. The source of the reducing equivalents in vivo has not been definitively established, but a cyanobacterial [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (PetF), reduced by ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) using NADPH, has been implicated. We show that both the diferric form of Nostoc punctiforme ADO and its (putative) diferric-peroxyhemiacetal intermediate are reduced much more rapidly by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 PetF than by the previously employed chemical reductant, 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methyl sulfate. The yield of formate and alkane per reduced PetF approaches its theoretical upper limit when reduction of the intermediate is carried out in the presence of FNR. Reduction of the intermediate by either system leads to accumulation of a substrate-derived peroxyl radical as a result of off-pathway trapping of the C2-alkyl radical intermediate by excess O2, which consequently diminishes the yield of the hydrocarbon product. A sulfinyl radical located on residue Cys71 also accumulates with short-chain aldehydes. The detection of these radicals under turnover conditions provides the most direct evidence to date for a free-radical mechanism. Additionally, our results expose an inefficiency of the enzyme in processing its radical intermediate, presenting a target for optimization of bioprocesses exploiting this hydrocarbon-production pathway.",
author = "Rajakovich, {Lauren J.} and Hanne N{\o}rgaard and Douglas Warui and Chang, {Wei Chen} and Ning Li and Booker, {Squire J.} and Carsten Krebs and {Bollinger, Jr.}, {Joseph M.} and Pandelia, {Maria Eirini}",
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Rapid Reduction of the Diferric-Peroxyhemiacetal Intermediate in Aldehyde-Deformylating Oxygenase by a Cyanobacterial Ferredoxin : Evidence for a Free-Radical Mechanism. / Rajakovich, Lauren J.; Nørgaard, Hanne; Warui, Douglas; Chang, Wei Chen; Li, Ning; Booker, Squire J.; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, Jr., Joseph M.; Pandelia, Maria Eirini.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, No. 36, 16.09.2015, p. 11695-11709.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rapid Reduction of the Diferric-Peroxyhemiacetal Intermediate in Aldehyde-Deformylating Oxygenase by a Cyanobacterial Ferredoxin

T2 - Evidence for a Free-Radical Mechanism

AU - Rajakovich, Lauren J.

AU - Nørgaard, Hanne

AU - Warui, Douglas

AU - Chang, Wei Chen

AU - Li, Ning

AU - Booker, Squire J.

AU - Krebs, Carsten

AU - Bollinger, Jr., Joseph M.

AU - Pandelia, Maria Eirini

PY - 2015/9/16

Y1 - 2015/9/16

N2 - Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a ferritin-like nonheme-diiron enzyme that catalyzes the last step in a pathway through which fatty acids are converted into hydrocarbons in cyanobacteria. ADO catalyzes conversion of a fatty aldehyde to the corresponding alk(a/e)ne and formate, consuming four electrons and one molecule of O2 per turnover and incorporating one atom from O2 into the formate coproduct. The source of the reducing equivalents in vivo has not been definitively established, but a cyanobacterial [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (PetF), reduced by ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) using NADPH, has been implicated. We show that both the diferric form of Nostoc punctiforme ADO and its (putative) diferric-peroxyhemiacetal intermediate are reduced much more rapidly by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 PetF than by the previously employed chemical reductant, 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methyl sulfate. The yield of formate and alkane per reduced PetF approaches its theoretical upper limit when reduction of the intermediate is carried out in the presence of FNR. Reduction of the intermediate by either system leads to accumulation of a substrate-derived peroxyl radical as a result of off-pathway trapping of the C2-alkyl radical intermediate by excess O2, which consequently diminishes the yield of the hydrocarbon product. A sulfinyl radical located on residue Cys71 also accumulates with short-chain aldehydes. The detection of these radicals under turnover conditions provides the most direct evidence to date for a free-radical mechanism. Additionally, our results expose an inefficiency of the enzyme in processing its radical intermediate, presenting a target for optimization of bioprocesses exploiting this hydrocarbon-production pathway.

AB - Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a ferritin-like nonheme-diiron enzyme that catalyzes the last step in a pathway through which fatty acids are converted into hydrocarbons in cyanobacteria. ADO catalyzes conversion of a fatty aldehyde to the corresponding alk(a/e)ne and formate, consuming four electrons and one molecule of O2 per turnover and incorporating one atom from O2 into the formate coproduct. The source of the reducing equivalents in vivo has not been definitively established, but a cyanobacterial [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (PetF), reduced by ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) using NADPH, has been implicated. We show that both the diferric form of Nostoc punctiforme ADO and its (putative) diferric-peroxyhemiacetal intermediate are reduced much more rapidly by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 PetF than by the previously employed chemical reductant, 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methyl sulfate. The yield of formate and alkane per reduced PetF approaches its theoretical upper limit when reduction of the intermediate is carried out in the presence of FNR. Reduction of the intermediate by either system leads to accumulation of a substrate-derived peroxyl radical as a result of off-pathway trapping of the C2-alkyl radical intermediate by excess O2, which consequently diminishes the yield of the hydrocarbon product. A sulfinyl radical located on residue Cys71 also accumulates with short-chain aldehydes. The detection of these radicals under turnover conditions provides the most direct evidence to date for a free-radical mechanism. Additionally, our results expose an inefficiency of the enzyme in processing its radical intermediate, presenting a target for optimization of bioprocesses exploiting this hydrocarbon-production pathway.

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