Electric vehicles (EVs) driven in cold weather experience two major drawbacks of Li-ion batteries: drastic power loss (up to 10-fold at −30 °C) and restriction of regenerative braking at temperatures below 5–10 °C. Both factors greatly reduce cruise range, exacerbating drivers' range anxiety in winter. While preheating the battery before driving is a practice widely adopted to maintain battery power and EV drivability, it is time-consuming (on the order of 40 min) and prohibits instantaneous mobility. Here we reveal a control strategy that can rapidly restore EV battery power and permit full regeneration while driving at temperatures as low as −40 °C. The strategy involves heating the battery internally during regenerative braking and rest periods of driving. We show that this technique fully restores room-temperature battery power and regeneration in 13, 33, 46, 56 and 112 s into uninterrupted driving in 0, −10, −20, −30 and −40 °C environments, respectively. Correspondingly, the strategy significantly increases cruise range of a vehicle operated at cold temperatures, e.g. 49% at −40 °C in simulated US06 driving cycle tests. The present work suggests that smart batteries with embedded sensing/actuation can leapfrog in performance.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Journal of Power Sources|
|Number of pages||6|
|ISBN (Print)||1600-051X (Electronic)\r0303-6979 (Linking)|
|State||Published - Dec 15 2017|
|Name||Journal of Power Sources|
Zhang, G., Ge, S., Yang, X. G., Leng, Y., Marple, D., & Wang, C. Y. (2017). Rapid restoration of electric vehicle battery performance while driving at cold temperatures. In Journal of Power Sources (pp. 35-40). (Journal of Power Sources; Vol. 371). Elsevier B.V.. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.10.029