Reactivity-initiated accident simulation to inform transient testing of candidate advanced cladding

Nicholas Brown, Aaron J. Wysocki, Kurt A. Terrani

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Abstract

    Advanced cladding materials with potentially enhanced accident tolerance will yield different light-waterreactor performance and safety characteristics than the present zirconium (Zr)-based cladding alloys. These differences are due to different cladding material properties and responses to the transient, and to some extent, reactor physics, thermal, and hydraulic characteristics. Some of the differences in reactors physics characteristics will be driven by the fundamental properties (e.g., absorption in iron for an iron-based cladding) and others by design modifications necessitated by the candidate cladding materials (e.g., a larger fuel pellet to compensate for parasitic absorption). Potential changes in thermal hydraulic limits after transition from the current Zircaloy cladding to the advanced materials will also affect the transient response of the integral fuel. This paper leverages three-dimensional reactor-core-simulation capabilities to provide information on appropriate experimental test conditions for candidate advanced cladding materials in a control-rod-ejection event. These test conditions use three-dimensional nodal kinetics simulations of a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) in a representative state-of-the-art pressurized water reactor with both nuclear-grade iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) and silicon-carbide (SiC-SiC)-based cladding materials. The effort yields boundary conditions for experimental mechanical tests, specifically peak cladding strain during the power pulse following the rod ejection. The impact of candidate cladding materials on the reactor kinetics behavior of RIA progression versus that of reference Zr cladding is predominantly due to differences in (1) fuel mass/volume/specific power density, (2) spectral effects due to parasitic neutron absorption, (3) control rod worth due to hardened (or softened) spectrum, and (4) initial conditions due to power peaking and neutron transport cross sections in the equilibrium cycle cores resulting from hardened (or softened) spectrum. This study shows minimal impact of SiC-SiC-based cladding configurations on the transient response versus reference Zircaloy cladding. However, the FeCrAl cladding response indicates similar energy deposition, but with significantly shorter pulses of higher magnitude. Therefore, the FeCrAl-based cases have a more rapid fuel thermal expansion rate, and the resultant pellet-cladding interaction occurs more rapidly.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Title of host publicationTop Fuel 2016
    Subtitle of host publicationLWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance
    PublisherAmerican Nuclear Society
    Pages271-285
    Number of pages15
    ISBN (Electronic)9780894487309
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2016
    EventTop Fuel 2016: LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance - Boise, United States
    Duration: Sep 11 2016Sep 15 2016

    Other

    OtherTop Fuel 2016: LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance
    CountryUnited States
    CityBoise
    Period9/11/169/15/16

    Fingerprint

    Accidents
    Testing
    Control rods
    Iron
    Zirconium
    Transient analysis
    Density (specific gravity)
    Physics
    Neutron absorption
    Hydraulics
    Kinetics
    Reactor cores
    Pressurized water reactors
    Silicon carbide
    Thermal expansion
    Chromium
    Materials properties
    Neutrons
    Boundary conditions
    Aluminum

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Fuel Technology
    • Nuclear Energy and Engineering

    Cite this

    Brown, N., Wysocki, A. J., & Terrani, K. A. (2016). Reactivity-initiated accident simulation to inform transient testing of candidate advanced cladding. In Top Fuel 2016: LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance (pp. 271-285). American Nuclear Society.
    Brown, Nicholas ; Wysocki, Aaron J. ; Terrani, Kurt A. / Reactivity-initiated accident simulation to inform transient testing of candidate advanced cladding. Top Fuel 2016: LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance. American Nuclear Society, 2016. pp. 271-285
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    abstract = "Advanced cladding materials with potentially enhanced accident tolerance will yield different light-waterreactor performance and safety characteristics than the present zirconium (Zr)-based cladding alloys. These differences are due to different cladding material properties and responses to the transient, and to some extent, reactor physics, thermal, and hydraulic characteristics. Some of the differences in reactors physics characteristics will be driven by the fundamental properties (e.g., absorption in iron for an iron-based cladding) and others by design modifications necessitated by the candidate cladding materials (e.g., a larger fuel pellet to compensate for parasitic absorption). Potential changes in thermal hydraulic limits after transition from the current Zircaloy cladding to the advanced materials will also affect the transient response of the integral fuel. This paper leverages three-dimensional reactor-core-simulation capabilities to provide information on appropriate experimental test conditions for candidate advanced cladding materials in a control-rod-ejection event. These test conditions use three-dimensional nodal kinetics simulations of a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) in a representative state-of-the-art pressurized water reactor with both nuclear-grade iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) and silicon-carbide (SiC-SiC)-based cladding materials. The effort yields boundary conditions for experimental mechanical tests, specifically peak cladding strain during the power pulse following the rod ejection. The impact of candidate cladding materials on the reactor kinetics behavior of RIA progression versus that of reference Zr cladding is predominantly due to differences in (1) fuel mass/volume/specific power density, (2) spectral effects due to parasitic neutron absorption, (3) control rod worth due to hardened (or softened) spectrum, and (4) initial conditions due to power peaking and neutron transport cross sections in the equilibrium cycle cores resulting from hardened (or softened) spectrum. This study shows minimal impact of SiC-SiC-based cladding configurations on the transient response versus reference Zircaloy cladding. However, the FeCrAl cladding response indicates similar energy deposition, but with significantly shorter pulses of higher magnitude. Therefore, the FeCrAl-based cases have a more rapid fuel thermal expansion rate, and the resultant pellet-cladding interaction occurs more rapidly.",
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    Brown, N, Wysocki, AJ & Terrani, KA 2016, Reactivity-initiated accident simulation to inform transient testing of candidate advanced cladding. in Top Fuel 2016: LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance. American Nuclear Society, pp. 271-285, Top Fuel 2016: LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance, Boise, United States, 9/11/16.

    Reactivity-initiated accident simulation to inform transient testing of candidate advanced cladding. / Brown, Nicholas; Wysocki, Aaron J.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    Top Fuel 2016: LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance. American Nuclear Society, 2016. p. 271-285.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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    N2 - Advanced cladding materials with potentially enhanced accident tolerance will yield different light-waterreactor performance and safety characteristics than the present zirconium (Zr)-based cladding alloys. These differences are due to different cladding material properties and responses to the transient, and to some extent, reactor physics, thermal, and hydraulic characteristics. Some of the differences in reactors physics characteristics will be driven by the fundamental properties (e.g., absorption in iron for an iron-based cladding) and others by design modifications necessitated by the candidate cladding materials (e.g., a larger fuel pellet to compensate for parasitic absorption). Potential changes in thermal hydraulic limits after transition from the current Zircaloy cladding to the advanced materials will also affect the transient response of the integral fuel. This paper leverages three-dimensional reactor-core-simulation capabilities to provide information on appropriate experimental test conditions for candidate advanced cladding materials in a control-rod-ejection event. These test conditions use three-dimensional nodal kinetics simulations of a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) in a representative state-of-the-art pressurized water reactor with both nuclear-grade iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) and silicon-carbide (SiC-SiC)-based cladding materials. The effort yields boundary conditions for experimental mechanical tests, specifically peak cladding strain during the power pulse following the rod ejection. The impact of candidate cladding materials on the reactor kinetics behavior of RIA progression versus that of reference Zr cladding is predominantly due to differences in (1) fuel mass/volume/specific power density, (2) spectral effects due to parasitic neutron absorption, (3) control rod worth due to hardened (or softened) spectrum, and (4) initial conditions due to power peaking and neutron transport cross sections in the equilibrium cycle cores resulting from hardened (or softened) spectrum. This study shows minimal impact of SiC-SiC-based cladding configurations on the transient response versus reference Zircaloy cladding. However, the FeCrAl cladding response indicates similar energy deposition, but with significantly shorter pulses of higher magnitude. Therefore, the FeCrAl-based cases have a more rapid fuel thermal expansion rate, and the resultant pellet-cladding interaction occurs more rapidly.

    AB - Advanced cladding materials with potentially enhanced accident tolerance will yield different light-waterreactor performance and safety characteristics than the present zirconium (Zr)-based cladding alloys. These differences are due to different cladding material properties and responses to the transient, and to some extent, reactor physics, thermal, and hydraulic characteristics. Some of the differences in reactors physics characteristics will be driven by the fundamental properties (e.g., absorption in iron for an iron-based cladding) and others by design modifications necessitated by the candidate cladding materials (e.g., a larger fuel pellet to compensate for parasitic absorption). Potential changes in thermal hydraulic limits after transition from the current Zircaloy cladding to the advanced materials will also affect the transient response of the integral fuel. This paper leverages three-dimensional reactor-core-simulation capabilities to provide information on appropriate experimental test conditions for candidate advanced cladding materials in a control-rod-ejection event. These test conditions use three-dimensional nodal kinetics simulations of a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) in a representative state-of-the-art pressurized water reactor with both nuclear-grade iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) and silicon-carbide (SiC-SiC)-based cladding materials. The effort yields boundary conditions for experimental mechanical tests, specifically peak cladding strain during the power pulse following the rod ejection. The impact of candidate cladding materials on the reactor kinetics behavior of RIA progression versus that of reference Zr cladding is predominantly due to differences in (1) fuel mass/volume/specific power density, (2) spectral effects due to parasitic neutron absorption, (3) control rod worth due to hardened (or softened) spectrum, and (4) initial conditions due to power peaking and neutron transport cross sections in the equilibrium cycle cores resulting from hardened (or softened) spectrum. This study shows minimal impact of SiC-SiC-based cladding configurations on the transient response versus reference Zircaloy cladding. However, the FeCrAl cladding response indicates similar energy deposition, but with significantly shorter pulses of higher magnitude. Therefore, the FeCrAl-based cases have a more rapid fuel thermal expansion rate, and the resultant pellet-cladding interaction occurs more rapidly.

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    Brown N, Wysocki AJ, Terrani KA. Reactivity-initiated accident simulation to inform transient testing of candidate advanced cladding. In Top Fuel 2016: LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance. American Nuclear Society. 2016. p. 271-285