This paper proposes a framework for analyzing video of physical processes as a paradigm of dynamic data-driven application systems (DDDAS). The algorithms were tested on a combustion system under fuel lean and ultra-lean conditions. The main challenge here is to develop feature extraction and information compression algorithms with low computational complexity such that they can be applied to real-time analysis of video captured by a high-speed camera. In the proposed method, image frames of the video is compressed into a sequence of image features. Then, these image features are mapped to a sequence of symbols by partitioning of the feature space. Finally, a special class of probabilistic finite state automata (PFSA), called D-Markov machines, are constructed from the symbol strings to extract pertinent features representing the embedded dynamic characteristics of the physical process. This paper compares the performance and efficiency of three image feature extraction algorithms: Histogram of Oriented Gradients, Gabor Wavelets, and Fractal Dimension. The k-means clustering algorithm has been used for feature space partitioning. The proposed algorithm has been validated on experimental data in a laboratory environment combustor with a single fuel-injector.