Recent functional insights into the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial physiology

Vasili Hauryliuk, Gemma C. Atkinson, Katsuhiko S. Murakami, Tanel Tenson, Kenn Gerdes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

461 Scopus citations


The alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) are involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p)ppGpp metabolism and (p)ppGpp-mediated regulation. In this Review, we summarize these recent insights, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of the RelA/SpoT homologue (RSH) proteins, which are key players that regulate the cellular levels of (p)ppGpp. We also discuss the structural basis of transcriptional regulation by (p)ppGpp and the role of (p)ppGpp in GTP metabolism and in the emergence of bacterial persisters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)298-309
Number of pages12
JournalNature Reviews Microbiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 24 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Infectious Diseases


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