Recent progress of NSTX lithium program and opportunities for magnetic fusion research

M. Ono, M. G. Bell, R. Kaita, H. W. Kugel, J. W. Ahn, J. P. Allain, D. Battaglia, R. E. Bell, J. M. Canik, S. Ding, S. Gerhardt, T. K. Gray, W. Guttenfelder, J. Hosea, M. A. Jaworski, J. Kallman, S. Kaye, B. P. Leblanc, R. Maingi, D. K. MansfieldA. McLean, J. Menard, D. Muller, B. Nelson, R. Nygren, S. Paul, R. Raman, Y. Ren, P. Ryan, S. Sabbagh, F. Scotti, C. Skinner, V. Soukhanovskii, V. Surla, C. N. Taylor, J. Timberlake, H. Y. Yuh, L. E. Zakharov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last six years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a dual lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼160 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between re-loadings. The unique feature of the NSTX lithium research program is that it can investigate the effects of lithium coated plasma-facing components in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system has produced many intriguing and potentially important results. In 2010, the NSTX lithium program has focused on the effects of liquid lithium divertor (LLD) surfaces including the divertor heat load, deuterium pumping, impurity control, electron thermal confinement, H-mode pedestal physics, and enhanced plasma performance. To fill the LLD with lithium, 1300 g of lithium was evaporated into the NSTX vacuum vessel during the 2010 operations. The routine use of lithium in 2010 has significantly improved the plasma shot availability resulting in a record number of plasma shots in any given year. In this paper, as a follow-on paper from the 1st lithium symposium [1], we review the recent progress toward developing fundamental understanding of the NSTX lithium experimental observations as well as the opportunities and associated R&D required for use of lithium in future magnetic fusion facilities including ITER.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1770-1776
Number of pages7
JournalFusion Engineering and Design
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering


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