When graphite is doped with electrons, carbon-carbon bonds lengthen and Raman-active phonons soften as antibonding states fill. However, in semiconducting carbon nanotubes, one Raman-active G-band mode increases in frequency at low doping levels. We show how phase constraints on the conduction-band wave function expose a latent bonding character in the conduction band of certain nanotubes. In these tubes, filling the lowest conduction band shortens the axial bonds even as it lengthens the circumferential bonds. The A1LO phonon, which preferentially stretches the axial bonds, then hardens even as the other phonons soften. Quantum confinement eliminates the angular averaging taken for granted in higher-dimensional systems and develops a new class of states, neither bonding nor antibonding, whose character depends on the angular orientation of the bonds in question.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)