Parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5), formerly known as simian virus 5 (SV5), is a non-segmented negative strand RNA virus that offers several advantages as a vaccine vector. PIV5 infects many cell types causing little cytopathic effect, it replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells, and does not have a DNA phase in its life cycle thus avoiding the possibility of introducing foreign genes into the host DNA genome. Importantly, PIV5 can infect humans but it is not associated with any known human illness. PIV5 grows well in tissue culture cells, including Vero cells, which have been approved for vaccine production, and the virus can be obtained easily from the media. To test the feasibility of using PIV5 as a live vaccine vector, the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from influenza A virus strain A/Udorn/72 (H3N2) was inserted into the PIV5 genome as an extra gene between the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene and the large (L) polymerase gene. Recombinant PIV5 containing the HA gene of Udorn (rPIV5-H3) was recovered and it replicated similarly to wild type PIV5, both in vitro and in vivo. The HA protein expressed by rPIV5-H3-infected cells was incorporated into the virions and addition of the HA gene did not increase virus virulence in mice. The efficacy of rPIV5-H3 as a live vaccine was examined in 6-week-old BALB/c mice. The results show that a single dose inoculation provides broad and considerable immunity against influenza A virus infection.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes