The digital human project aims at the building of whole human body datasets, from nano to macro, including cells, DNA, tissues, organs and the systems. This paper presents the construction of Virtual Chinese Human (VCH) dataset, including data acquisition, image preprocessing, image registration, ROI segmentation and 3D visualization. Almost all the main anatomical structures in human body have been segmented and 3D reconstructed. Furthermore, we also developed some applications based on VCH dataset, such as, 3D anatomy atlas, virtual health science education software, virtual acupuncture, and Image-Guided Neurosurgery. Virtual Human dataset provides an indispensable framework for researchers in all the subjects related to human structure, and is potentially of great significance for the development of a myriad of sciences and technologies.