This review contrasts the planned and actual recruitment and retention efforts for a cervical cancer prevention study within a predominantly underserved population. Recruitment was a primary obstacle to trial progression and multiple strategies to improve recruitment were implemented to meet objectives. The actual recruitment strategies were expansion to five geographically distinct clinical sites, use of nurse practitioners focused primarily on patient issues, extremely flexible study hours and location, honorariums, support for transportation and child care, and creativity in maintaining contact with study participants. With these strategies, 90% of eligible patients consented to participate in the study.
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