We have calculated the frequency-dependent refractive index and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility for C60 in the condensed phase, which is related to third-harmonic generation (THG) and degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) experiments. This was done using the recently developed discrete solvent reaction field (DRF) model, which combines a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) description of the central C60 molecule with a classical polarizable MM model for the rest of the fullerene cluster. Using this model, effective microscopic properties can be calculated that, combined with calculated local field factors, give macroscopic susceptibilities. The largest calculation was for a cluster of 63 C60 molecules in which the central molecule was treated with TD-DFT. For this molecule, the effective polarizability was increased with about 15% and the effective second hyperpolarizability with about 60% compared with the gas phase. The calculated refractive index was found to be in good agreement with experiments and other theoretical results. The agreement with THG experiments was within a factor of two, whereas for DFWM the agreement was less good due to the neglect of vibrational contributions in the calculations. It was found that it is more important to account for the dispersion in the third-order susceptibilities than in the corresponding second hyperpolarizability.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry