Regulation of protein synthesis by branched-chain amino acids

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

83 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Historically, amino acids have been viewed as precursors for protein synthesis as well as metabolic substrates. Recently, a new role for amino acids as regulators of mRNA translation has been identified. In this role, they modulate the phosphorylation state of proteins that represent important control points in translation initiation, including the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and the ribosomal protein S6 kinase S6K1. When administered orally to fasted rats the branched-chain amino acids are particularly effective in stimulating translation initiation. Of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine is most potent. Interestingly, leucine administration stimulates global rates of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle but not in liver. However, in liver, branched-chain amino acids enhance the translation of a particular set of mRNAs typified by those encoding the ribosomal proteins and translation elongation factors, suggesting that branched-chain amino acids upregulate the capacity of the tissue to synthesize protein.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-43
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2001

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Branched Chain Amino Acids
branched chain amino acids
translation (genetics)
protein synthesis
Leucine
ribosomal proteins
Translational Peptide Chain Elongation
Proteins
leucine
Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
Peptide Elongation Factors
Amino Acids
Protein Precursors
Ribosomal Proteins
Liver
Protein Biosynthesis
liver
amino acids
Skeletal Muscle
Up-Regulation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Endocrinology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

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title = "Regulation of protein synthesis by branched-chain amino acids",
abstract = "Historically, amino acids have been viewed as precursors for protein synthesis as well as metabolic substrates. Recently, a new role for amino acids as regulators of mRNA translation has been identified. In this role, they modulate the phosphorylation state of proteins that represent important control points in translation initiation, including the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and the ribosomal protein S6 kinase S6K1. When administered orally to fasted rats the branched-chain amino acids are particularly effective in stimulating translation initiation. Of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine is most potent. Interestingly, leucine administration stimulates global rates of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle but not in liver. However, in liver, branched-chain amino acids enhance the translation of a particular set of mRNAs typified by those encoding the ribosomal proteins and translation elongation factors, suggesting that branched-chain amino acids upregulate the capacity of the tissue to synthesize protein.",
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Regulation of protein synthesis by branched-chain amino acids. / Kimball, Scot; Jefferson, Leonard "Jim".

In: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, Vol. 4, No. 1, 01.12.2001, p. 39-43.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

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