Vitamin D, 25hydroxyvitamin D (25D), and 24,25dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25D) were measured before and after broad spectrum antibiotic (Abx) treatment for 2 wks. Abx treatments increased 25D and 24,25D levels suggesting that the microbiota or Abx were altering vitamin D metabolism. Increased 25D, but not 24,25D, following Abx treatments were found to be dependent on toll like receptor signaling. Conversely, the effects of Abx on 24,25D levels required that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) be expressed in tissues outside of the hematopoietic system (kidney) and not the immune system. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 increased following Abx treatment and the effect of Abx treatment on FGF23 (like the effect on 24,25D) was not present in VDR knockout (KO) mice. The Abx mediated increase in 24,25D was due to changes to the endocrine regulation of vitamin D metabolism. Conversely, 25D levels went up with Abx treatment of the VDR KO mice. Host sensing of microbial signals regulates the levels of 25D in the host.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Clinical Biochemistry