The rejection of haloacetic acids (HAAs) by forward osmosis (FO) and the coupled reverse draw solute permeation were experimentally determined and mathematically modeled by using the solution-diffusion model for both the AL-FW (active layer facing the feed water) and the AL-DS (active layer facing the draw solution) orientations. The rejection ratio for each HAA increased with the increase of draw solute concentration for the AL-FW orientation. In contrast, the HAA rejection ratio could reach its maximum under a medium osmotic pressure difference for the AL-DS orientation. The rejection ratios for all HAAs were higher than 94.6% for the AL-FW orientation and ranged from 73.8% to 89.1% for the AL-DS orientation under a draw solute concentration of 1. mol/L NaCl. The reverse draw solute flux for the AL-FW orientation was lower than that for the AL-DS orientation. The model-predicted HAA rejection results matched well with the experimental rejection ratios for the AL-FW orientation. However, the model over-estimated the rejection ratios for the AL-DS mode, likely due to the adoption of inaccurate mass transfer coefficient for internal concentration polarization. Regarding the reverse draw solute permeation, a general agreement between the model prediction and experimental data was observed for both orientations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Science(all)
- Water Science and Technology
- Mechanical Engineering