Urediniospores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the soybean rust fungus, have a high probability of being removed from a soybean leaf by water runoff associated with subsequent rainfall after wet deposition. The effects of rainfall intensity, subsequent spore-free rainfall duration, and soybean leaf sample height on uredinia density were used to evaluate the retention of urediniospores on soybean leaf tissue. Rainfall simulations of 45 and 85 mm/h were conducted on potted soybean plants that were inoculated with 2 min of urediniospore- injected simulated rainfall and exposed to 0, 1, and 30 min of subsequent spore-free rainfall. Urediniospore retention was estimated using uredinia density values obtained from a detached leaf bioassay for the sample heights of soil level, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy. Soil level leaflets inoculated with the 45 mm/h rainfall intensity treatment had a higher (P < 0.01) mean number of uredinia/cm2 than the 85 mm/h treatment, even though they were inoculated with approximately 40% fewer urediniospores. Subsequent spore-free rainfall reduced (P < 0.01) uredinia density by as much as 38 and 91% for the 1- and 30-min durations, respectively. The relationship between uredinia density proportion and depth of rainfall was best fit using an inverse power empirical model. Our results indicate that a majority of the wet deposited P. pachyrhizi urediniospores would be removed from soybean leaf surfaces by subsequent rainfall, but sufficient percentages of spores (10 to 25%) will likely remain on the leaf tissue long enough to germinate and infect during heavy summer rains lasting >30 min.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science