Background. Between July 1, 1994 and December 1, 1998, 147 simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplantations were performed at our center. Of 95 patients who experienced at least one acute renal allograft rejection episode after transplantation, 7 (7.4%) developed rejection in the presence of stable and normal or near-normal renal function. Methods. The indication for renal allograft biopsy was a rising serum lipase, i.e., suspected pancreatic rejection. All seven patients were treated with steroids and augmentation of the tacrolimus dose, with a fall in the serum lipase and no change in the serum creatinine. Results. The serum creatinine levels just before, at the time of, 1 week after the biopsy, and at most recent follow-up were 1.4±0.4, 1.3±0.3, 1.2±0.2, and 1.2±0.2 mg/dl. The serum lipase levels just before, at the time of, 1 week after the biopsy, and at most recent follow-up were 1022±1157 mg/dl, 874±996 mg/dl, 243±260 mg/dl, and 94±75 mg/dl. The tacrolimus dosages and levels at the time of the biopsy and I week later were 14.9±5.0 mg/day and 15.0±4.0 ng/ml, and 16.4±6.3 mg/day and 15.1±6.8 ng/ml. Conclusions. These findings suggest that, in patients undergoing simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplantation, the entity of dissynchronous pancreatic allograft rejection without renal allograft rejection may not really exist. These data also make an additional fundamental point that acute rejection may occur in patients with normal and stable renal function.
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